Nous vous invitons à partager vos connaissances, vos compétences et votre expertise en ce qui concerne l’intégration de textes et d’outils numériques dans l’enseignement. Ce sondage est conçu pour répondre aux questions de recherche dans le cadre d’un projet de recherche sur des littératies numériques.
L’enquête Teaching Literacies with Technology (TLT) a été conçue pour éclairer notre compréhension de la façon dont les éducateurs et éducatrices, travaillant dans les classes de la maternelle (petite enfance) au 1er cycle (adultes) autour du monde, utilisent des textes et des outils numériques dans l’enseignement des littératies.
Les questions du sondage portent également sur le perfectionnement professionnel. L’enquête demande comment les enseignants ont appris l’intégration de la technologie pour soutenir l’apprentissage des littératies chez leurs élèves et étudiant.e.s. Il demande également aux enseignants d’identifier les types de développement professionnel dont ils ont le plus besoin.
L’enquête prend environ 15 minutes à compléter. Il demande aux répondants de décrire le travail qu’ils font et de fournir des informations sur leur préparation professionnelle en éducation. Les questions invitent également les répondants à évaluer leurs utilisations d’une gamme de technologies numériques à des fins personnelles et professionnelles.
Pour en apprendre le plus possible sur les façons dont les enseignants intègrent diverses technologies dans leur enseignement des littératies, une question demande aux répondant.e.s d’indiquer leur intérêt à une entrevue de suivi utilisant des outils de vidéoconférence en ligne. Ces entrevues approfondiront notre compréhension des pratiques actuelles et des besoins de perfectionnement professionnel les plus urgents pour les collègues en littératies à travers le monde.
Bien que nous ne puissions mener que des entrevues en anglais et en français pour l’instant, nous aimerions avoir la participation de collègues internationaux qui seraient intéressés à mener des entrevues dans d’autres langues. Veuillez nous contacter si vous souhaitez participer ou si vous pouvez nous aider à mener des entrevues.
Many times in educational research, we are seeking to understand practices of an individual, a classroom, or larger selection of learning environments. In this we can see, and often times interact with participants.
Often when we learn from research, we take lessons learned, and try to apply them to other spaces. This could be the use of a pedagogical routine in scaffolding. This could also include the use of an assessment from one learning context and applying it to another.
I personally saw some of this in previous research looking at online reading comprehension. We developed pedagogy related to teaching online reading comprehension. We also developed a series of assessments that sought to authentically asses online reading comprehension.
One of the challenges that I saw in these efforts was a request from educators and other researchers to “get a copy” of a lesson or assessment and implement it with their learners. This was especially true in presentations I made about the online reading comprehension assessments. When asked to share these assessments, my usual response is that they should not simply take the items and structure of an online reading comprehension assessment, and implement it with their students. They should also not look to the results of this survey as a way to determine the skill or ability of a student as it relates to the focus of the instrument.
I believe educators and researchers should examine the philosophy, focus, and constructs behind the assessment or intervention, and adapt it for use with their learners. Revise, rewrite, and remix the materials using content that is meaningful and authentic for their targeted group.
Put simply, I believe I make the argument that you cannot just take the work and ideas from one area, and use them in another. I think this is even more of a challenge as we look at using work in another language or context. The full complexities of language and culture need to be “translated” for the local group.
The process of “translating” content from one language to another is called localization in the content creation industries.
There are some classes and resources from Google and Microsoft to get a better handle on what this means and how to implement it.
One of the easiest ways for me to understand localization is through the work in film and television.
Localization in media
As can be found in other industries, film and television are becoming increasingly connected in a globally networked society. As films and TV shows are released, the modern consumer expects this content to be released in their native language almost simultaneously to its original language release. The pressure is on content creators to translate work quickly, however, the job of the translator is not only to translate the content but also to ensure that the audience can enjoy the film. Localization therefore plays a vital role in the process.
To successfully translate and localize a film or TV show, the translator must understand the cultural perception of the target audience. Objects and ideas hold a variety of symbolic meanings in different nations, so it’s important that the connotations of colors, foods and animals, amongst many other things, are taken into account before undertaking a literal translation.
An example of this is shown in the movie Inside Out in which the film substitutes broccoli for bell peppers to be more suitable for children in Japan. The thinking is that broccoli may be viewed as disgusting in American, whereas children in Japan love broccoli, so the animators substituted green peppers for these sequences.
Still another scene in the movie substitutes dreams and memories about ice hockey for the sport of soccer which is a bit more understood by a global audience. Many of these changes may seem small, but this attention to detail shows that the content creators understand their materials, and their audience.
An excellent overview of this process is available in the video below.
Localization in research
As we conduct educational research across global contexts, I wonder about the “translation” or localization that we need to do to our materials to make them more authentic. After some initial searches, it appears that localization of research has been largely ignored in qualitative and quantitative research manuals and may constitute a relatively new area of research methodologies.
We must note, that as detailed in this post, localization of research involves much more than translation from one language to another. The TLT survey used as the linchpin in this research was drafted in English, and went through content validation with experts that were primarily English speakers. We have recently translated the TLT into Spanish, French, and Chinese, and will release those soon. I wonder about the other specialized translation practices requiring technical, cultural and business considerations that should be made to pay attention to the global, technologically savvy educators that we’re seeking.
I wonder about ways in which we can address any lost dialogue between the English language version of the survey, and make sense of themes that may be lost and (possibly) gained in this instrument. At this point, I believe that we are gaining by simply translating the survey into other languages and sharing it online, at this website, with the same attention and respect that we’re providing for the English language materials. As we move forward, we’ll need to account for these threats to our research and recognize our perspectives. We’ll also need to trust each other as a research team, and also build a mutual understanding with our participants to make sure we are examining perspectives across languages and cultures while we examine our localization practices.
The term digital native was coined and popularized by Marc Prensky in his 2001 article titled Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. In this he posited that the contemporary decline in American education was due to educators’ inability to understand the needs of modern students. Students were labeled digital natives and said to have an insider’s perspective on the web literacies and tools that inundate our society. Adults on the other hand, and more specifically educators, are relegated to the position of immigrants or outsiders in these practices.
It should be noted that Prensky’s original paper was purely theoretical and no empirical data has yet proven his claims. In fact, a growing body of research has steadily cast doubt or entirely disproven the existence of the digital native. Put simply, there is no proof that one is more or less digitally savvy based on their born on date. Prensky has since changed his metaphor of the digital native to instead describe digital wisdom, and yet the belief in the digital native still exists.
In this context, we believe that a 21st century educational system must educate all students in the effective and authentic use of the technologies that permeate society to prepare them for the future. A central challenge in this is that educators have little or no guidance in how to embed these practices into their current work processes. Conducting research in these spaces is a challenge as educators may be unsure of their own skillset, while needing to build these skills in their students. There is not only a need to use these texts and tools in our work, but also guide students in this process.
Despite the transformative possibilities associated with the inclusion of the Internet and other communication technologies (ICTs) in instruction, relatively little is known about the regular use of these technologies in our daily lives. Perhaps educators need not resign themselves to life as an exiled digital immigrant and instead should identify opportunities to empower themselves.
We invite you to share your knowledge, skills, and expertise as it relates to the integration of digital texts and tools in instruction. This survey is designed to answer the research questions as part of the Digitally Literate Research Project.
The Teaching Literacies with Technology (TLT) survey has been designed to inform our understanding of how educators, working in K-16 classrooms around the world, use digital texts and tools in literacies instruction.
Survey questions also focus on professional development. The survey asks how teachers have learned about technology integration to support literacies learning. It also asks teachers to identify the kinds of professional development they need most.
The survey takes about 15 minutes to complete. It asks respondents to describe the work they do, and to provide information about their professional preparation in education. Questions also invite respondents to evaluate their uses of a range of digital technologies for personal and professional purposes.
This version of the survey is in English. We will release versions in other languages over the upcoming weeks. Stay tuned to this website. We would also appreciate expertise in the field that can assist with translation, and spreading this work globally.
To learn as much as we can about the ways that teachers integrate diverse technologies in their literacies teaching, the survey invites respondents to indicate whether they would be interested in a follow-up interview using online video conferencing tools. These interviews will deepen our understanding of current practices and the most pressing professional development needs for literacies colleagues around the world.
Although we can only conduct interviews in English and French for now, we would welcome the involvement of colleagues around the world who would be interested in conducting interviews in other languages. Please contact us if you have an interest in participating or helping in any capacity.
Preparation of the Teaching Literacies with Technology Survey was a lengthy process. From collaborating with peers to add the content, to validating with experts in the field, to taking the feedback and rebuilding the survey, the process took almost eight months before we were ready to launch the survey. I joined the Digitally Literate Research Team in October 2015, in the midst of the final revisions of the survey prior to validation and preparing applications for each institution’s research ethics boards.
The initial survey was put together by Michelle Schira Hagerman, Ian W. O’Byrne, Denise Johnson, and Greg McVerry. This initial survey was combed through by myself (Heather), Michelle, and Ian. We wanted to make sure we covered basic demographic information, facets of technology use within and outside of work, and educators’ own digital literacy knowledge/skill.
Discussions at this stage between the research team consisted of whether we were truly capturing educators digital literacy skills and teaching practices, the wording and tone of questions, and the repetitiveness of questions. Here we made some minor adjustments, and opted to put the demographics at the end to the survey. This decision was made to ensure that should participants only fill out a portion of the survey, we had usable data about their teaching practices. However, we reexamined this decision later on for validation purposes, which I will discuss later.
Once we were comfortable with the survey, we invited close to 40 practitioners and scholars to provide feedback on the survey. We received 31 responses. From this feedback, I was tasked with summarizing the comments, and formulating a plan of attack to improve the survey. Validators provided feedback at the end of each page of the survey. From this we combed through the survey, page by page, question by question.
The feedback we received for the informed consent questioned the the length of this content. However, we were unable to change much of the content as it contains all the information that our respective Institutional Review Board (IRB) and Research Ethics Board (REB) required. However, as suggested, we did add clarifying language regarding the target audience for the survey “You are invited to participate in a research study because you are a PK-16 educator who may use instructional technologies as part of literacy instruction”. We also added headings to help direct the readers through the letter in a more systematic way. Finally, one of the most common points of feedback we received was that the survey would not take 60 minutes, as we had stated in the first informed consent letter. Validators reported that it would probably take about 30 minutes, and listing 60 minutes may turn educators away from wanting to participate in the study.
Despite our thoughts about moving the demographics to the end of the survey, many of the validators questioned this, and felt it would be best to place it at the start. After discussing, we agreed, as this would allow us to systematically ensure that those participants who completed the survey were not characteristically different from those who did not fully complete the survey. Thus, this would add to the reliability of our anticipated analyses.
It was also suggested that we add questions about experience and grades being taught. As this is a global survey, we opted to ask what age group educators were teaching, as to avoid confusion between various countries grade systems. Based on the feedback we also added questions on where the educators were from, teaching, and the languages in which they taught and spoke.
Again we clarified some of the language, for example the type of institution in which participants were teaching was clarified from public and private to: Publicly funded by taxpayers; Private institution, not funded by government; and Other: [please specify]. We also added a description to help prompt respondents for the question “Please describe your current role”.
The main content of the survey underwent a fairly major overhaul after the validation feedback came in. One of the major adjustments was the addition of digital literacy specific questions. There was some feedback that we had not adequately captured educators’ digital literacy skills and how they implemented digital literacy education within the classroom, and we had to agree. There was a heavy focus on how educators’ used technology but not enough on digital literacy itself. So we added questions regarding theoretical approaches that educators may use to teach digital literacy and integrate technology. Additionally we added survey items regarding educators’ encourage their students to Use, Participate and Create in a digital world.
We initially had the question:
How, if at all, does the use of instructional technology positively impact students’ non-academic outcomes (e.g., social-emotional, behavioral, motivational)? (Select all that apply.)
The physical safety of students has improved.
Students are more actively engaged in class.
There are fewer classroom issues.
Improved classroom climate.
Increased time on task.
Students’ interactions with each other are more positive.
Other (please specify)
This question was altered so as to remove the positive lean of the question, to assess whether educators thought instructional technology impacted these factors in a positive or negative way. Each option was rated on a likert scale from negative to positive impact on student outcomes.
Additionally, we added examples throughout to aid in clarification. We also elaborated and generalized the applications that educators may be using within their daily personal and professional lives. We opted to move away from name brands where alternatives were available For example, we had originally included Microsoft word as an option, but generalized for word processing applications, so as to include Google Docs, Open Office, etc.
The biggest comment about the main content of the survey was the organization. Specifically, there was a lack of flow. The reviewers expressed that similar questions were scattered throughout, and it was difficult to assess which topics were being explored. Once we had reviewed and integrated all of the feedback the survey was printed off to be able to view the survey as a whole. This allowed me to visually group similar questions. Once this stage was done, Michelle and myself reviewed the survey, to ensure that the order of items seemed logical.
Overall, we aimed to assess how and which technologies that educators were using within the classroom, and at home, their digital literacy skills, and how they were fostering digital literacies in their students. We also wanted to include a short section on what potential barriers educators were facing in implementing technologies and digital literacy skills within the classroom. From the survey responses we can not only gain a better understanding of how educators from around the world teach digital literacy, but can then select participants to for the second stage of the research, the in depth interviews, where we will be able to further explore how educators are teaching digital literacies.
The study will focus on the knowledge, skills, and dispositions utilized by educators as they embed digital texts and tools in literacy instruction. To respond to the research questions, we will use two methods: survey and semi-structured interviews. We will focus our sampling efforts broadly to identify educators across the globe who are authentically and effectively embedding these digital literacies into instruction as well as a cadre of educators whose practices may not yet align with their hopes or expectations for future practice in this domain.
A purposeful sample of survey respondents will be invited to participate in a follow-up interview. Participation for most will therefore include the completion of an online survey. We estimate this survey will take 60 minutes to complete. The survey will remain open for a year (January 2016-January 2017). During this time period, we plan to conduct interviews with survey respondents who represent a range of experiences.
We hope to conduct at least 60 interviews with no upper-limit prescribed. Although we plan to categorize interviews by geographical regions, we recognize that we many need to cluster our interviews around the regions represented by the survey respondents. We are aiming for a globally representative set of responses on the survey so that interviews can be clustered as outlined above.
Importantly, interviews will be conducted online and shared openly on the web. This methodological choice will make these data immediately available to research and educational communities who could benefit from these data, and from our analyses.
A purposeful sample
The target population for this research is literacies educators who teach Pre-K through higher education and, who integrate digital technologies to support their students’ learning. Sampling methods will therefore target these communities of educators. Participants will be invited to take the Teaching Literacies with Technology (TLT). Future posts will detail the construction and validation of the TLT survey. To recruit study participants for the survey and interviews, we will follow a three pronged approach.
First, the TLT survey will be shared openly online to attract participants with a range of digital literacies teaching experiences and skills. The link to the survey and information about the study will be shared broadly via education, literacy, and technology organizations or communities that normally attract educators with a range of experiences and skills. Local, state/provincial, national, and global-reaching organizations will be asked to distribute information about our survey. Given that we cannot approach organizations until we have ethics approval for this work, it is important to note that we would follow ethics policies outlined by the organizations themselves insofar as they align with the ethics policies of our respective institutions. As points of departure for the recruitment of participants, we will ask for distribution through networks including, but not limited to the International Literacy Association, the Literacy Research Association, ISTE.org, The National Writing Project, Mozilla, the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), the Ontario Modern Language Teachers’ Association (OMLTA), the Educational Computing Organization of Ontario, the Michigan Reading Association and several school boards.
Second, participant responses on the TLT survey will be reviewed. Using answers to questions about participants’ geographic location, the age of students they teach, and their self-reported competencies as technology-using educators, we will purposefully sample and invite candidates for a follow-up interview to better understand their skills and experiences as they relate to the research questions. This approach will ensure that follow-up interviews include participants who offer a range of perspectives and experiences.
Third, after our first round of recruiting, researchers will identify particular gaps in our survey and interview sample groups. To ensure representative perspectives, we will purposefully use snowball sampling (Biernacki & Waldorf, 1981) to reach out to a broader range of online communities of educators based on the data we initially collect. We will again invite survey participation and completion of interviews but cannot, at this time, accurately know which specific groups will be missing from our initial set of data.
Preparing teachers to integrate technologies strategically to support student learning is one of the most important issues facing teacher educators around the world (Dede, Jass Ketelhut, Whitehouse, Breit, & McCloskey, 2008; Edwards & Nuttall, 2015; Greenhow, Robelia & Hughes, 2009; Hwee, Koh, Chai, Hong & Tsai, 2015). Pre-service and in-service educators need to be well versed in the theory and application of diverse digital tools to support student learning so that, by extension, they feel equipped to prepare children to thrive in a complex, globally networked age (Mishra & Koehler, 2006).
Although the Internet has become a central part of personal and professional life for the more than three billion people who access it daily (InternetLiveStats.com), the more challenging demands of digital and web literacies, especially for academic purposes, are little understood and seldom taught in school (Leu et al., 2011; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, Castek & Henry, 2013). As teacher education programs work to redress existing skill and knowledge gaps in educational technologies for their teacher candidates, they must also be aware of the contexts into which their students will be graduating. Evidence suggests that new teachers are very much influenced by the ecology of technology integration that they find in their workplace (Zhao & Frank, 2003) and that generally, teachers experience a diverse range of resource support for technology integration (Hixon & Buckenmeyer, 2009; Lim, Lee & Hung, 2008; Ramorola, 2013).
The challenges for teacher education programs are therefore multifaceted. These programs have a responsibility to prepare novice teachers to both acquire and learn to teach advanced digital literacies (that are not especially well understood). Plus, they must equip these teachers to continue to use and teach digital literacies skills once they are hired into professional contexts, many of which cannot (yet) provide adequate technology support or mentorship in situ.
Given these complexities, teachers and teacher educators would benefit from research that accurately portrays both the nature and scope of digital literacies teaching and learning in schools. These data would provide a much-needed point of departure on which future curricula and professional learning programs could be based. Even more essential to this conversation are global perspectives that could enable important comparisons and inform policy. Despite the transformative possibilities associated with the inclusion of the Internet and other communication technologies (ICTs) in instruction, relatively little is known about the regular use of these technologies in classrooms across global settings, or how promising practices that work to support students in one country might be adapted for others (OECD, 2015). For literacies educators in particular, understanding how best to teach using digital and web literacies comprehension on the Internet is central to our future, yet it is surprisingly under developed as an area of research.
Dede, C., Jass Ketelhut, D., Whitehouse, P., Breit, L., & McCloskey, E. M. (2008). A Research Agenda for Online Teacher Professional Development. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 8–19. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022487108327554
Edwards, S., & Nuttall, J. (2015). Teachers , technologies and the concept of integration. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 375–377. http://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2015.1074817
Greenhow, C., Robelia, B., & Hughes, J. E. (2009). Learning, Teaching, and Scholarship in a Digital Age: Web 2.0 and Classroom Research: What Path Should We Take Now? Educational Researcher, 38(4), 246–259. http://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09336671
Hixon, E., & Buckenmeyer, J. (2009). Revisiting Technology Integration in Schools : Implications for Professional Development Computers in the Schools, 26(2), 130–146. http://doi.org/10.1080/07380560902906070
Hwee, J., Koh, L., Chai, C. S., Hong, H., & Tsai, C. (2015). A survey to examine teachers ’ perceptions of design dispositions , lesson design practices , and their relationships with technological pedagogical content knowledge ( TPACK ). Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 378–391. http://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2014.941280
Leu, D. J., McVerry, J. G., O’Byrne, W. I., Kiili, C., Zawilinski, L., Everett-Cacopardo, H., Kennedy, C., & Forzani, E. (2011). The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension : Expanding the Literacy and Learning Curriculum. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(1), 5–14. http://doi.org/10.1598/JA
Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., Castek, J., & Henry, L. A. (2013). New literacies: A dual level theory of the changing nature of literacy, instruction, and assessment. Theoretical models and processes of reading, 6, 1150-1181.
Lim, W. Y., Lee, Y. J., & Hung, D. (2008). “ A prophet never accepted by their own town ”: a teacher ’ s learning trajectory when using technology. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 36(3). http://doi.org/10.1080/13598660802232605
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x
OECD (2015). Students, computers and learning: Making the connection. OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/9789264239555-en Retrieved from http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/students-computers-and-learning_9789264239555-en#page1
The Digitally Literate research project seeks to document instructional use of digital texts & tools in global classrooms.
This study will focus on the knowledge, skills, and dispositions utilized by educators as they embed digital texts and tools in literacy instruction. We are sampling broadly to identify educators across global settings who are authentically and effectively embedding digital literacies into instruction. Our focus extends from early childhood to to higher education settings.
This research asks four questions:
How do educators working in K-16 classrooms around the world use digital texts and tools in literacy instruction?
What themes and patterns exist as educators embed digital texts and tools in literacy-based instruction across global classrooms?
What professional development experiences do these educators typically receive on issues related to the instruction of digital literacies?
In comparison, what professional development experiences do these educators express wanting or needing to receive?